Category: Public Relations

Public Relations

When Did Puerto Rico Become Part Of The United States?

When Did Puerto Rico Become Part Of The United States?

The relationship between Puerto Rico and the United States is a complex one, marked by periods of conflict, transition, and mutual benefits. This relationship, which began more than a century ago, redefined Puerto Rico’s political, economic, and social landscapes, imprinting an indelible mark on its national identity. We will delve into the history focusing on when Puerto Rico officially became a part of the United States and the role of a Sydney public relations firm’s part in the historical narrative.

The Initial Acquisition

The year 1898 marked the beginning of a new chapter in Puerto Rico’s history. At the height of the Spanish-American War, the United States invaded Puerto Rico as an extension of its conflict with Spain. This war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, whereby Spain ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam to the United States. Thus began Puerto Rico’s status as an American territory.

The Foraker Act and the Jones Act

In the subsequent years, the political identity of Puerto Rico was shaped by various legislations passed by the U.S. Congress. The year 1900 witnessed the implementation of the Foraker Act, officially known as the Organic Act of 1900. This legislation established a civilian government in Puerto Rico. It maintained the island as an American territory but did not grant U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans.

In 1917, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson signed the Jones Act, extending U.S. citizenship to all inhabitants of Puerto Rico. However, this did not entitle Puerto Rico to statehood, and instead, it remained an organized but unincorporated U.S. territory.

Sydney Public Relations & Puerto Rico’s Status

As Puerto Rico’s political status continued to be a debated topic in the early 20th century, many political parties and activists sought the help of international PR firms to amplify their voices. One such firm was a Sydney public relations firm, which played a strategic role in the global dissemination of information surrounding Puerto Rico’s position. This firm helped in not only fostering a better understanding between the Puerto Ricans and the Americans but also escalating the issue on a global platform.

Statehood, Independence, or Commonwealth?

Following World War II, the issue of Puerto Rico’s political status became more acute. Three main options were proposed: statehood, independence, or a commonwealth status. In 1952, the people of Puerto Rico ratified a new constitution establishing the island as an autonomous U.S. commonwealth. It was widely celebrated as a significant step, providing Puerto Ricans with more control over their internal affairs.

Present Scenario

Today, Puerto Rico remains an unincorporated territory of the U.S, neither a state nor independent. Its unique status allows the island certain freedoms, but it also limits its rights and benefits in the U.S. system, creating a complex and often challenging dynamic.

Puerto Rico’s relationship with the U.S has always been, and continues to be, a subject of passionate debate and discourse. Its century-long journey since 1898 is a testament to its resilience and quest for an identity rightfully its own. The final chapter of Puerto Rico’s political status still awaits a pen, yet its historical odyssey emphasizes a narrative of courage and aspiration, underscored by the global efforts of entities such as the Sydney public relations firm.

Male Jealousy &Amp; Insecurities

Male Jealousy &Amp; Insecurities

By Greg Tiwa

Good Job, You Did It?

You finally landed the girl of your dreams. She’s beautiful, smart and sexy. She is everything that you’ve ever wanted in a woman. Every time you both go out, you notice all the guys checking her out. In turn, you hold her closely in a protective manner and send dirty looks to the gawkers. You watch her every move and feel a hint of jealousy and insecurity at times when it is not warranted. You constantly call to check up on her and then count the seconds before she returns your call. You feel extremely paranoid when she goes out with girlfriends or co-workers. You instantly feel rage when she looks at another guy, however innocent it may be.

You feel consumed by your insecurities, directing your energy towards over protectiveness and jealousy instead. You try to buy her time and attention by buying her gifts, dinners and whisking her away on vacations. You also prefer to spend your time with her at home and not out in public for fear of her looking at other men. You use possess and isolate tactics on her.

So where does all this jealousy and insecurity come from?


You may have had some really bad experiences before regarding loyalty and relationships and you don’t want this to happen to you again. You intensely pledge your guarantee that she is the only one in your life.

Male insecurity has been proven to be directly connected with a deficiency in the size of the male member. Many men are bothered by their current penis size and constantly look down on themselves. This definitely explains the thriving penis enlargement industry.

Other reasons include money and resources. Many guys feel disdain and often envy towards other men who are better off than themselves. Having more money means you could probably buy your girl bigger and better gifts, that you think makes you highly desirable and attractive.

All men, just like women, need to be liked and loved. They want to be adored, respected and esteemed. Men want to feel important and special to someone.

So How Would You Fix This?

You need to take time and do a self-assessment. Get new clothes, hairstyle and learn new things. Get a membership at a gym and start shedding those pounds or toning your body. More importantly, is the measure of trust and loyalty that you and your girl have for each other. Do not let your insecurities and jealousy cloud your judgment and ruin your relationship. Treat your girl with the utmost respect and start trusting her more. She is with you isn’t she?

About the Author: Greg Tiwa has been researching and writing about mens mental health and it’s relationship to male endowment for 4 years. Visit his website:


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Commercial Truck Insurance Basics: Easy Guide To Simplifying Your Policies

Commercial Truck Insurance Basics: Easy Guide To Simplifying Your Policies

By Patrick Winchester

If youre like me, you dread the day each year that your car insurance expires. Even for good drivers with no accidents its almost impossible to find great coverage at really competitive rates.

In the world of commercial truck insurance, the difficulties are compounded immenselynot only are you dealing with a much higher price tag and greater specialization, but youre paying to protect your livelihood, not just your car!

There are tons of truck insurance options available to drivers and fleets and which ones you choose will depend on your employment situationcontractors require different policies than motor carriers, different types of cargo require different coverage, etc.

This article is designed to help you simplify the process while ensuring youre getting great coverage. Well let you know the policies you need, dont need and help you cut through some of the confusing specialized terms agents may attempt to over-sell you.


Truck Insurance you Need by Law

If youre an independent truck driver, the only type of insurance you truly need is primary liability to protect against injury and property damage your truck may cause as a result of an accident.

Coverage levels vary between about $15,000 and $1,000,000, depending on what type of truck you drive and what state you are licensed ina fuel tanker or hazardous materials hauler, for example, will have higher dollar amount requirements than a semi truck hauling normal commercial goods.

Policies Every Driver Should Consider

Comprehensive coverage, also a form of truck insurance that protects your actual truck, will pay you out even if accidents are your fault, or if your truck is damaged due to theft, vandalism or other external forces.

A Note to the Independent Owner/Operator

If youre an independent trucker who always operates under contract to other motor carriers, chances are the only policies you need to effectively protect your business and other motorists are comprehensive coverage and bobtail insurance. Bobtail insurance is a less-expensive form of primary liability that covers your truck during the times you are not under contract.

Bobtail insurance can save you some money because it doesnt charge you for times youre protected under your motor carriers commercial truck insurance policy.

A Note about Specialization and Motor Carriers

The truck insurance industry can get really confusing because it is so specialized, but it doesnt have to be. While dump truck insurance differs from tow truck insurance that differs from big truck insurance, these names all really refer to primary liability coverages geared toward the application of those specific vehiclesthey arent separate policies you need to worry about.

Just knowing they exist can be helpful in making sure you arent overpaying for coverage amounts based on the capacity you operate your truck.

If you have several trucks operating under your authority or are an actual motor carrier, you will need additional forms of insurance by state law and commercial demand. These include, but arent limited to, workers compensation policies, cargo insurance, trailer insurance and primary liability for your business.

About the Author: Patrick Winchester is a freelance writer with

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In Vehicle Cell Phone Use   Assessing Accident Risk

In Vehicle Cell Phone Use Assessing Accident Risk

By Gary Rothstein

Mobile phone use in motor vehicles has increased at a remarkable rate over the past 15 years. Yet it is undeniable that utilizing a cell phone while driving can affect driver performance as it relates to the overall safe operation of a vehicle. There are a number of things to consider in deciding whether the trade off in convenience is worth the potential risks associated with the distraction created by a cell phone. Given the fact that the individual driver (and/or business owner) ultimately pays for the resulting consequences associated with an auto or truck accident (financial, emotional and physical lose); it is prudent to seek out relevant and reliable information in making a decision. In doing so, consider the source, as well as the possible motivation behind the information provider.

Source: US Legislation

In the United States, there are currently no federal laws prohibiting driving while using a cell phone. In an earnest attempt to find a solution, some states (New Jersey, New York, the District of Columbia, Connecticut and pending in California) have passed laws barring hand-held cell phone use while driving. Typical fines range from $50 to $100 for drivers caught using a hand-held device. While these lawmakers have the public’s best interest at heart by levying fines, not all entities weighing in on this subject are likely to have the same incentive.

Source: Manufacturer Research

As the result of an independent study (found on their web site in the form of a press release), Plantronics, a manufacturer of headsets states, “71% of drivers steer more accurately when using a headset with a mobile phone”. They point out that the study was to discover if a person using a mobile phone improves driving if he or she uses a headset. Stephen Wilcox, Ph.D., Principal of Design Science (independent research firm) states, “Driving with both hands on the wheel is the safest option for motorists who use mobile phones, and headsets are tools to enable that improvement. Considering the source, is this statement characteristic of scientific research? Is it objective and free of marketing bias? Could it confuse individuals into thinking that cell phones are safe as long as you are hands-free? Additionally, found toward the end of the press release, is a comment by a senior director of product marketing. Beth Johnson states, “It’s important to keep in mind that our study is not intended to address the issue of whether or not it is safe to talk on a mobile phone while driving, but rather what type of technology is safest for drivers to use while talking on their mobile phones”. They also state their intent is to educate drivers on options for using mobile phones comfortably and responsibly while driving”. Given that the goal is safety education, is this research responsibly comprehensive to consider it a relevant and reliable source?

Surely, as you go about your own assessment the idea of freeing up both hands to control the steering wheel is a logical consideration. If a driver focuses exclusively on driving the vehicle, then two hands on the wheel is better than one. Unfortunately, this seemingly sensible approach can lead to a false sense of driver security (possibly increasing crash risk) as noted in various reports ( by the Crash Investigation Team at Virginia Commonwealth University Center for Public Safety. Their findings illustrated that the cognitive resources required to carry on a phone conversation are equivalent to those necessary to drive. This is an important concern given VCUs history of transportation safety research, as well as other studies concluding this behavior (carrying on a phone conversation while driving), reduces both driver reaction time and driver attentiveness, especially as they relate to braking.


Unlike a computer, humans have a limited capacity to process simultaneous information. If the software on your computer seems to slow down, you might consider increasing the memory or processor speed to compensate for delays resulting from an overload in computing capacity. We as humans have a similar limitation when it comes to processing too much information, but unlike computers, our resources are somewhat fixed. Given the inherent delays in our own thought response time when faced with increased load factors, is it practical or safe to hold a cell phone conversation while driving a motor vehicle?

Source: Government Transportation Safety Research

The US government employs many of the top transportation safety experts and funds a major portion of the world’s accident prevention research. Given the effects traffic accidents and related congestion have on US productivity, accident reduction is a top priority. Considering that distracted driving accounted for at least 6.4 percent of crash fatalities in 2004 (U.S. Department of Transportation), many researchers are looking closely at the distinguishing distraction caused by cell phone use in vehicles. Furthermore, of the many potential distractions in a vehicle, cell phones are considered equally or more dangerous than the other known distractions such as eating, reading a map or grooming while operating a motor vehicle. In light of the ongoing research for, and by, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ( we should at least consider their policy on using cell phones while driving that states The primary responsibility of the driver is to operate a motor vehicle safely. The task of driving requires full attention and focus. Cell phone use can distract drivers from this task, risking harm to themselves and others. Therefore, the safest course of action is to refrain from using a cell phone while driving.

Source: Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA)

According to the CTIA, there are currently more than 218 million subscribed cell phone users as of August 2006 (compared to some 4.3 million in 1990). Based on the extraordinary growth of cellular phone industry and the CTIA’s advisory role, it may be of value to think about their point of view on this topic. In doing so, you might consider a document found on the CTIA’s web site, entitled “SafeDrivingTalkingPoints2” (created June 6, 2006) that states “But for some reason, legislative efforts to prevent driver distractions have been narrowly focused on wireless phone use. According to government statistics and respected research studies, this approach is well off point.” Consider that, there are more than 220 million vehicles on the road and a similar number of cell phones subscribers. Based on the amount of time customers might potentially spend using their cell phones in vehicles, we would hope to find the CTIA an objective source. Given the magnitude of the revenue at stake, is a greater degree of scrutiny in order here? Would the CTIA hold a different position if they were liable, in part, for distracted vehicle accidents?

Source: Leading Universities & Independent Researchers

While there are a number of valuable studies on this subject, the following are extensive research projects provided by highly accredited organizations:

1) Virginia Tech Transportation Institute researchers and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) tracked 100 cars and their drivers for a year; they discovered that talking on cell phones caused more crashes, near-crashes and other incidents than other distractions (100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study, April 2006).

2) University of Utah researchers determined that motorists on the blood-alcohol threshold of being legally drunk were able to drive better than sober cell phone using drivers. A key researcher and author in this field, Psychology Professor David Strayer notes, Just like you put yourself and other people at risk when you drive drunk, you put yourself and others at risk when you use a cell phone and drive. The level of impairment is very similar. Also, consider they found motorists to be more accident-prone and slower to react when talking on cellular telephones. It did not matter if it was hands-free either because of “inattention blindness”, a syndrome that makes a driver less able to process visual information.

3) The George Institute for International Health (University of Sydney, Australia), Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (Arlington, Virginia) and Injury Research Centre, University of Western Australia (Crawley Australia) jointly presented research entitled “Role of mobile phones in motor vehicle crashes resulting in hospital attendance: a case-crossover study”. The research consisted of 456 drivers aged 17 years who owned or used mobile phones and had been involved in road crashes requiring hospital attendance between April 2002 and July 2004. They concluded that a driver who uses a mobile phone (up to 10 minutes prior to a crash) has a four times higher likelihood of crashing and an increased likelihood of a crash resulting in injury. Using a hands-free phone is not any safer.

Eliminate the Risk & Keep the Benefits

If you are the head of a household, a guardian or the parent of a less experienced driver, your decision to allow any in-vehicle cell phone use carries a major emotional and financial risk. If you are a fleet manager or you employ individuals that conduct work-related conversations while driving, the risk of liability for distracted accidents could fall on you. Strongly consider the legal ramifications for the careless operation of an employee-owned or company-supplied vehicle before deciding to ignore the inherent danger created by a major cognitive distraction such as a cell phone.

Obviously, there are no easy or certain solutions without sacrifice of convenience. Remember that the benefit of having a cell phone (emergency use and times when you are not operating a vehicle) is not lost just because it remains off while driving. If you consider the facts presented by relevant and reliable sources, it really is not a matter of a trade off after all, but an opportunity to prevent an accident or possibly a fatality. In the mean time, until it is proven otherwise, think about instigating a life saving strategy NOW for the safe use of cell phones – limit yourself, loved ones and employees to use (personal and business) only when the vehicle is in park!

About the Author: Gary S. Rothstein is the President of Mobile Awareness, a company which designs and markets vehicle safety products. He has 25 years experience in high technology electronic systems.

, Cleveland, Ohio, 866-653-5036, Copyright September 2006


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Standard Business Card Font Sizes

Standard Business Card Font Sizes

By Robert Johnston

Your business cards can be wonderfully effective for you if you design them right. If you take the time to design an attractive and unique business card printing, and then follow through by actually handing out your cards to a lot of people, you will see a significant up tick in your business.

However, you must be careful to follow certain standards when it comes to your business card design, especially in the area of text size. You have probably seen a business card that features abnormally large text, which makes it look amateur and unprofessional. At the same time, text that is too small can make your card appear cheap or dull, or even downright hard to read. We are going to point out some standards that you should stick to, along with some special notes to remember as you get your business card printing done.

Basic Guidelines

— For most businesses, use 7 or 8 point font for your address and contact information.


— Doctors, lawyers, and other professionals, however, often use smaller fonts. If you are a professional, you may want to consider using a 6 point font.

— Whatever font size you use for your address, use one size bigger for your name. In other words, if your address is in 7 point, use 8 point for your name.

— For your company name, you will go considerably bigger. Use a 12 to 15 point font for your company name.

— For the title of your card, if different than any other information, use the same size font as you used for your address. You can also go one point smaller if you prefer.

— NEVER print your address in less than 6 point font, even if you are a professional.

— NEVER print your name in larger than 11 point font, even if you are targeting senior citizens.

— NEVER print your address in larger than 9 point font.

Special Considerations

Some fonts just do not play well with others, as they appear to be a different size than the rest. In other words, if you set some fonts to 6 point, for instance, they will look like 5 point when you type. The ‘copperplate’ font is this way. If a font just does not look right to you, pick a standard font (like Times New Roman or Arial) and type a few characters next to the strange-looking characters, in the same font size. If it is obvious that the font you are using goes by a different size format, go ahead and change the size setting to compensate.

You should also be careful when you are using a preset business card template. When you begin your business card printing project, it will have all the fonts set to the default size. You will want to look at the settings, and change them to the dimensions you want. Otherwise, you might be unpleasantly surprised by the results of your work.

About the Author: The author is affiliated with a company that specializes on business card printing (



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Cheap Life Insurance   Advantages Of Joint Life Insurance Policy

Cheap Life Insurance Advantages Of Joint Life Insurance Policy

By Roberta Martin

Do you know that joint term life insurance is one of those hidden jewel in the life insurance market? Why? Well, for the reason that it is, uncomplicated, cheap, capable of providing a large number of advantages over two individual term life insurance policies, and is designed for two or more people. Therefore it’s perfect for married couples whether they have children or not and for two or more business partners to secure their business in the event of passing away of one of the partner.

To put in plain words a joint term life insurance is a type of life insurance that provides financial security that disburses a fixed sum assured or the face value of policy to the beneficiary in the event of one a policyholder passes away. This type of life cover is called as joint first to die policy, given that the policy in fact covers two individuals however expires and disburses as soon as the first individual passes away.

Joint life insurance policies are reasonably priced and easy on the pocket, due to the fact there is less work involved for the life insurance company to offer a single policy for two individuals than for both to have their own single policy, so the company discounts off the processing fees and other related costs! For that reason, each individual having his or her own single policy is a great deal more costly.


There are a number of other advantages that are related with joint term life insurance. Perhaps the greatest advantage is that the policy can disburse when an individual is diagnosed for life-threatening disease if discovered at some point in the term of the policy. One more great advantage is that it will take care both individual on the policy are secured, this is ideal for parents, new home owners with a huge home loan, business associates, or other circumstances. Being familiar with that the other individual on the cover will be all right if something occurs to you provides an immense peace of mind regarding the whole thing.

Another advantage of joint term life insurance is that the premium will be preset for the fixed term whether that is 10 years when the children’s education is completed or 30-years to confirm that the home loan can be paid off and your family does not have to face a foreclosure. Having the facility to renew the clauses of the policy at the end of every term is big advantage in itself. Despite the fact that joint term life insurance, is not perfect for all, if you have someone you love and you would like look after lest something occurs, you must definitely consider it.

Getting quotes for joint life insurance is as well very easy. You just need to log on to the internet search for joint life insurance quotes and you will have a plethora of choice. There are several online websites offering insurance services like free online life insurance quotes and listing of life insurance products from several leading life insurance companies. By comparing these products and their costs, you can easily get the best joint life insurance deal that goes well with your needs.

About the Author: Roberta is an expert in the field. For more information on

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